هدف هاي اين وبلاگ ارتقاي آموزش جغرافیا ارتقاي ديدگاه هاي منطقي معرفي برخي از شيوه هاي نوين آموزش ايجاد پل ارتباطي بين همه کساني که به جغرافیا وآموزش جغرافیا علاقه مندند پاسخ به پرسش هائي که در زمينه کتاب هاي درسي جغرافیا مطرح مي شود معرفي برخي از وب سايت ها و نرم افزارهاي مناسب جغرافیا طرح پرسش ها ،اخبار و سرگرمي هاي جالب جغرافیا مخاطبان وبلاگ دانش آموزان ، معلمان جغرافیا و علوم ، دانشجويان جغرافیا ، استادان آموزش جغرافیا و همّه کساني که به جغرافیا و آموزش آن علاقه مندند

اطلاعاتی در مورد ايران

اين اطلاعات توسط دانشجوی ايرانی در دانشگاه بلژيک تهيه شده است.

UNIVERSITY OF GENT – BELGIUM
Faculty of Agriculture and Applied biological Sciences
International Course in Food Science and Nutrition
Academic year 1999 – 2000

COUNTRY PRESENTATION
IRAN
By Firouzeh Babakani

 

1. GENERAL INFORMATION

    1. Geography

1.1.1 Area

1.648 million sq km.

Comparative area : slightly larger than Alaska

Land : 1.636 million sq km.

Water :12000 sq km

Coastline : 2440 km

Iran also borders the Caspian Sea : 740 km

1.1.2 Geographic coordinate

The land lies between latitude 25 degree to 39 degree 40'north of equator and between longtitute 44 degree 14' to 63 degree 20' east of Greenwich Meridian .

1.1.3 Situation

Middle east, bordering of gulf Oman, the Persian Gulf and Caspian sea.

Iran is bounded on the north by Turkeminstan , the Caspian Sea , Azerbaijan and Armenia , on the West by Turkey and Iraq , on the south by the Persian Gulf and Oman sea , on the east by Pakistan and Afghanistan . Totally Iran has a border of 8731 kms of which 2700 kms go for water borders and 6031 kms for land borders . About 90 percent of Iran's land falls within the boundary of Iran Plateau . More than half of the area is worn to mountains and highlands , one fourth of it comprises deserts and arable lands cover less than one fourth of the remaining area . Iran enjoys a large climate variability .

1.1.4 Border countries

Afghanistan 936km, Armenia 35km, Azerbaijan 701, Iraq 1458, Pakistan 909km, Turkey 499km and Turkmenistan 992km.

Figure 1. Map of the Iran and it’s border of the neiboring countries.

1.1.5 Adminsitrative division

Administrative divisions of Iran at the end of solar year 1376 (march 1998)

  • Number of provinces : 28
  • Number of sub - provinces : 265
  • Number of counties : 707
  • Number of cities : 678
  • Number of rural agglomerations : 2227
  • Number of inhabited villages: 68123

1.1.6 Elevation extremes

About 52% of the country consists of mountains and deserts and some 16% of the country has an elevation of more than 2 000 m above sea level. The largest mountain massif is that of the Zagros, which runs from north-western Iran first southwards to the shores of the Persian Gulf and then continues eastwards till the most south-eastern province. Other mountain ranges run from the north-west to the east along the southern edge of the Caspian Sea. Finally, along the eastern frontier of Iran several scattered mountain chains exist. The Central or Interior Plateau is located in between these mountain chains and covers over 50% of the country. It is partly covered by a remarkable salt swamp (kavir) and partly by areas of loose sand or stones with stretches of better land near the foothills of the surrounding mountains.

The cultivable area is estimated at about 51 million ha, which is 31% of the total area. In 1993 about 18.5 million ha, or 36% of the cultivable area, were considered usable for agriculture, while 14.4 million ha were actually cultivated. Of this area, 12.8 million ha consisted of annual crops and 1.6 million ha of permanent crops. About 70% of the landholders possess less than 5.5 ha (of which on average 2.13 ha irrigated and 3.25 ha rainfed).

  • Lowest point : Caspian sea 28m
  • Highest point : Qoleh damavand 5671 m
  • The highest point in Iran is Mount Damavand being 5671 meters high .
  • The longest river is the Karun river being 890 kilometers long (only navigable river).
  • The largest lake is the Orumiyeh lake with an area of 4868 kilometers .
  • The largest island is Qeshm with an area of 4868 kilometers .

1.2 Time

The official time is 3.5 hours ahead GMT.

1.3 Flag

Iran's official flag has three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red. With a special symbol of the Islamic Republic and 22 words of Allah-o-Akbar (God is Great) found in the middle.

Figure 2. The flag of Iran.

As Iranians have always honord and respected to the name of Allah, which is the most important item on the flag. The three horizontal lines are the manifestation as follow:

Green : manifestation of Islam and beauty, white: manifestation of peace and red : manifestation of brave.

1.4 Capital

 
 

Tehran is the capital of Iran with a population of 6758845 .

1.5 Climate and weather

Mostly arid or semiarid ,subtropical along Caspine coast. Iran is a vast country made up of very different climate regions, so that the climate can change from one time of the year to another, as well as between different regions at the same time of the year.

There are generally four seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter.Spring starts from mid March and the weather is pleasant with warm and sunny days and occasional spring showers. The average temperature during Spring is around 20-25C degrees. In summer the heat is often overwhelming, with the temperature frequently rising above 35C degree in Tehran. In summer time, pleasant weather and beautiful sceneries in the Northern Iran and Caspian Sea attracts many people to escape from the heat and spend holidays in the mountain areas and the sea side.Autumn starts from mid September with rather cool and sunny days. Beautiful scenerie with colorful yellow, red and brown autumn leaves can be found by just an hour drive from Tehran. In winter, the cold can be intense and the thermometer frequently drops below zero centigrade to -5 or -10 centigrade at night, even in Tehran. Shemshak and Dizin Ski slopes in Northern Tehran are popular during winter.

periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes along westernborder and in the northeast. A series of massive, heavily eroded mountain ranges surround Iran’s high interior basin.Most of the country is above 1500 feet, one-sixth of itover 6500 high. In sharp contrast are the coastal regions outside the mountain ring. In the north, the 400-mile strip along the Caspian sea, never more than 70 miles wide and frequently narrowing to 10, falls sharply from the 10000-foot summit 90 feet below sea level. In the south, the land drops away from a 2000 foot plateau,backed by arugged escarpment three times as high, to meet the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

1.6 Water source

Iran can be divided into the following major river basins: the Central Plateau in the middle, the Lake Orumieh basin in the north-west, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the west and south, the Lake Hamoun basin in the east, the Kara-Kum basin in the north-east and the Caspian Sea basin in the north. With an area of 424 240 km2, the Caspian Sea is the largest landlocked water body in the world and its surface lies about 22 metres below sea level.

All these basins, except the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, are interior basins. There are several large rivers, the only navigable one of which is Karun, the others being too steep and irregular. The Karun river, with a total length of 890 km, flows in the south-west of the country to the Shatt El-Arab, which is formed by the Euphrates and the Tigris after their confluence. The few streams that empty into the Central Plateau dissipate into the saline marshes. All streams are seasonable and variable. Spring floods do enormous damage, while there is little water flow in summer when most streams disappear. Water is however stored naturally underground, finding its outlet in subterranean water canals (qanats) and springs. It can also be tapped by wells.

Internal renewable water resources are estimated at 128.5 km3/year. Surface runoff represents a total of 97.3 km3/year, of which 5.4 km3/year comes from drainage of the aquifers, and groundwater recharge is estimated at about 49.3 km3/year, of which 12.7 km3/year is obtained from infiltration in the river bed. Iran receives 6.7 km3/year of surface water from Pakistan and some water from Afghanistan through the Helmand river. The flow of the Arax river, at the border with Azerbaijan, is estimated at 4.63 km3/year. The surface runoff to the sea and to other countries is estimated at 55.9 km3/year. The total safe yield of groundwater (including non renewable water or unknown groundwater inflow from other countries) has been estimated at 49.3 km3/year.

Dams have always played an important role in harnessing Iran's precious water reserves and the long-term objective of Iran's water resources development plan is based on the control and regulation of water resources through dams. In 1994, 27 storage dams were in operation with a total regulation capacity of 39.2 km3. At the same time, 24 storage dams were under construction with a design regulation capacity of 11.5 km3. In 1993, the annual electricity production from dams was 25 116 GWH, which is 33% of the total energy production of the country. Dams also play an important role in flood control through routing of floods. Several reservoirs behind the dams seem to offer good sailing and water-skiing facilities, but have not been used for recreation so far. The total agricultural, domestic and industrial water withdrawal was estimated at about 70

km3 in 1993. Although this is equal to 51% of the actual available renewable water resources, current annual abstraction from aquifers (from 49 km3 in 1990 up to 57 km3 in 1993) is already more than the estimated safe yield (46 km3). Further to these 70 km3, another 39 km3 of water is used annually, of which about 20 km3 for electricity production, 11 km3 for flood control, 2 km3 for environmental protection (control of downstream parts of rivers), while the remaining part is considered to be surplus water.

1.6.1 Institutional environment

According to the water legislation, three ministries are in charge of water resources assessment and development:

The Ministry of Energy (MOE) has two responsibilities: energy supplies and water resources. In the field of irrigation, it is in charge of the construction of large hydraulic works, including dams and primary and secondary irrigation and drainage canals for the distribution of water. Within MOE, the Water Affairs Department (WAD) is responsible for overseeing and coordinating planning, development, management and conservation of water resources. Fourteen publicly owned Regional Water Authorities (RWA), reporting directly to MOE, are responsible for feasibility studies, projec execution and subsequent management. The operation and maintenance of primary and secondary irrigation and drainage canals are operated by operation maintenance corporations affiliated to MOE.

The Ministry of Agriculture (MOA) is responsible for supervising rainfed and irrigated crop development. It is in charge of subsurface drains, tertiary and quaternary canals as well as on-farm development and irrigation techniques, planned and operated by the Provincial Agricultural Organizations and the Deputy Ministry for Infrastructure Affairs of the Ministry of Agriculture. The Ministry of Jihad-e-Sazandagi (MOJ) deals with watershed management and rural development.

1.6.2 Trends in water resources management

Agriculture is one of the main priorities in national development plans. The annual increase in

irrigated land over 15 years (1978-1993) was 3.8% along with a 4.4% annual increase for agr- icultural water supply. An increase of 500 000 ha of irrigated land and an increase of 10 km 3/year of agricultural water supply was planned in the second national five-year plan (1995-2000).

At present, a big gap exists between water delivery from the main canals and water application in the field. Compared to the large investments for water resources development, little has been done to improve irrigation water use at farm level. Water is delivered to old traditional irrigation canals and on-farm conveyance and the use of irrigation water is generally rudimentary and wasteful. The use of earth bunds, unlined canals and poor levelling combined with low water charges have resulted in very low levels of water conveyance and use efficiencies (30% as anational average) and caused the emergence of serious drainage problems.

A fundamental review of the organizational chart and institutional changes were made to improve this situation. Since 1992, the Deputy Ministry for Infrastructure Affairs of the Ministry of Agriculture created five departments: farm development, pressurized irrigation systems, water supply, hydraulic constructions and operation and maintenance.

1.6.3 Government policy

The government policy includes:

An increase in irrigation efficiency by changing the surface irrigation techniques to pressurized irrigation (2 million ha were planned for the year 1995-2000); the establishment of a land Bank to provide loans for on-farm development projects; change in water pricing and delivery methods; large-scale privatization.

1.7 History

1.7.1 The name of Iran

The country of the nobles : The name of Iran comes from an ancient term "a-eer-ya-nem va-ee-jo" in Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrianism, meaning the land of the Aeers'. This term refers to a certain plateau which the Indo-Iranians, a branch of Aryans selected for their settlement. By passage of time, the term "Aeer" changed to "Er" and later to "Ir". "Er" or "Ir", in the ancient languages of the time, meant NOBLE. The official name of our country in the Sassanid period (400-600 A.D.) was Iranshatr or Iranshahr. "Shatr" or "Shahr" means country. Thus Iranshahr means The Country of The Nobles.

Aryan or Indo-European is the general name given to the people thought to be originated from the steppe of central and southern Asia. Around 4000-3000 BC., these people started to emigrate to the warmer places in the south or west. Most scholars think of this as the beginning of the distinction between Indo-European tribes. Tribes who emigrated to the west became the ancestors of Germans, Slavs, Greeks, Latins, and probably Celts. People who chose the south as their destination came to be known as Indo-Iranians. There are also a rather small group of people who most likely chose not to participate in this great migration. These later entered the pages of history as Scythians and Sarmatians, although they are also believed to be nomadic Indo-Iranians since their language and customs are closely tide to the Ancient Persians.

Unfortunately, thousands of years of attacks by the foreigners on Iran has left us with almost nothing about the life of the common folk during the Achaemenid era. Alexander burned Persepolis and whatever it contained, and took the only remaining version of Avesta, the Zoroastrian holy book and an encyclopaedia of knowledges, to Greece. Greeks translated this text, and used it to advance their own knowledge, many of them presented to the western world as Greek. Later, Arabs burned the Gondi Shapour University and its library, thus destroying all signs of intellectual life in pre-Islamic period. So, at the first glance, it seems like for over a thousand years, Iranians achieved no scientific results, and almost lacked the intelectual life of their neighbors like Greeks and Romans. However, an educated man realises that this can not be possible for an empire which ruled a large part of the world for such a long time, and few books which remain from that era prove that Iranians have been very advance in knowledges of Medicine, Astrology, Mathematics, Architecture, and Literature.

On the matter of religion. Early Achaemenids were most likely followers of the old Aryan religion of worshiping natural gods, mainly Mithra, god of sun, and Anahita, goddess of water and fertility. It has been proposed that after Xerxes (Khashayar) the Zoroastrianism became the most wide spread religion, although it existed way before Achaemenids. It can be viewed that the followers of Deevayasna (evil worshipers) were greatly out numbered by Mazdayasna (truth worshipers). Although there is no evidence of an Achaemenid king ever claiming a particular religion, it is most certain that by the time of Alexander, most Iranians were Zoroastrians. Never this affected their treatment of conquered subjects, since they respected Cyrus' freedom of religion laws very seriously, and never forced their religion on their subjects.

Iran was a constitutional monarchy, and turned to a republic due to an Islamic movement, in 1979.The Iranian plaateau is one of the oldest centers of encient civilization in Asia, and consequently it has aloftly position from the viewpoint of archaeology. The date of settlement on the Iranian plateau from the new Stone Age (Neolithic) until the immigration of the Aryan races is not so clear. But the available evidence reveals that it had been settled long ago. The older residential centers were near springs and rivers and generally in the neighbourhood of the Zagross and Alborz Ranges where living conditions were more habitable. The most important of these ancient centers were: The Sialk hills of Kashan, the Hessar hill of Damghan, Torang-Tappeh of Gorgan, Hassanlu hill of Urumieh, Marlik of roodbar, as well as Shush in Khozestan. I n these centers of civilization a number of reliceshave been found , some of which date back to the fifth millenium B.C.

The immigration of Aryan races to the Iranian plateau began in the second millenium B.C. of these races? The Parthians settled in Khorasan, the Medes in the west , and the persian in the south. The empire of the Medes was founded in Hekmataneh, (or Ekbatan) namely the present day Hamadan.the Achaemendis, after vanquishing the Medes and capturing their capital, estabilished the first great Iranian empire. The boundaries their conquest during the time of Darius I (522-485 B.C.) stretched from the plains of the river Indus in the east? To greece in the west. The monuments of takht-e-Jamshid and Pazargad belong to this period, as in valuable archeological antiquities of the brilliance of ancient Iran. Every year thousends of tourists visit these monuments.

After the overthrow of the Achaemendes by Alexander and the setting of Takht-e-Jamshid on fire his successors (the Selokids) governed Iran for a short period, thus mixing Iranian and Hellenistic cultures. Around the year 250 B.C. the Parthians who belonged to an equestrian Aryan race, advanced from Khorasan to the west and south west, then estabilished their empire in Tisfoon, and dominated the Iranian plateau until the year 224 A.D. TheSassanid estabilished a new empire in 225 A.D. by over throwing the last Parthian King, while their empire lasted to the middle of the 7th century A.D. The ancient era of Iran with all its political, social and cuktural characteristics is considered one of the most glorious and magnificent periods of iranian history. Many cultural heritages and historical monuments which have remained from this era can be seen at Takht-e-Jamshid, Pazargad, Sush, Shoushtar, Hamadan, Firuz-Abad Naghsh-e-Rostam, Tagh-e-Bostan, Servestan and Neishaboor, all of which are well worth visiting.

1.7.2 Iran as a country for tourism

Enjoying a rich ancient and Islamic history . Iran is among the largest human civilizations and for this reason and due to its variety of climates and a number of beautiful natural attractions , it is considered as one of the worlds most important tourism centres . Of the worlds 12 places recognized and registered as "the worlds Civilization Heritage" by UNESCO , three are located in Iran :

  • persepolis ( ruins of the former capital of Iran in 2500 years ago ).
  • Naqsh-e-Jahan square ( a set of religious and public monuments from safavids era ).
  • Choghazanbil temple ( Aeelams imperial city in 3000 years ago ) near the city of shush .

The most important and famouse historical and attractive places in Iran :

  • Complex of Emam Rezas sacred premises (the Eighth Imam of shi'ite , peace be upon him)

in Mashhad .

  • Mausoleum of Prophet Daniel (one of Israelites prophets) in the city of Shush .
  • Masjid-e-Shaikh Lotfollah (mosque) (one of the Islamic architecture masterpieces in Safavids era) in Esfahan .
  • Vank Cathedral (one of the most beautiful Iranian churches) in Esfahan .
  • Atashkadeh Yazd (the largest and oldest Zoroasterians firetemple) in Yazd .
  • Arg-e-Bam (the worlds largest adobe building) in Bam .
  • Maabad-e-Anahita (the stone temple of Ashkanian era) in Kangavar .
  • Qaleh -e-Falak -ol-Aflak (a large military castle in Sasanids era) in Khorramabad .
  • Taq Bostan (of stone buildings in the Sasanids era) in Kermanshah .
  • Pasargad (Cyrus's grave , the founder of Achaemenid dynasty in Iran) near Shiraz .
  • Naqsh -e- Rostam (the largest stone building in Sasanids era) near Shiraz .
  • Gounbad -e- Soltaniyeh (dome) (the world's highest dome) in Mahneshan , Zanjan .
  • Syoseh Pol and Pol-e- Khaju (bridges) (of the architecture masterpieces in Safavids era)

in Esfahan .

  • Banaye Shamsolemareh (Imperial Palace of Qajar kings) in Tehran .
  • Tochal Telecabin (the world's longest telecabin installation) in Tehran .
  • Tus (Ferdusi's Mausoleum in Mashhad .
  • Emamzadeh Mahruq (Khayam and Attar's Mausoleums) in the city of Neyshabur .
  • Hafeziyeh (Hafez's Mausoleum) in Shiraz .
  • Saaeediyeh (Saadi's Mausoleum)
  • Qabus- ebne- Voshmgir (the world's highest brick tower).

In addition , other attractive places in Iran include Bazaar-e- Tehran , Bagh-e-fin-e-Kashan (garden), Borj-e-Toghrol (tower) in Shahr-e-Rey , Bagh-e-Eram (garden) in Shiraz, Bagh-e-Shazdeh in Mahan (garden), Arg-e-Karimkhan (castle), and Bazaar -e- Vakil in Shiraz , Masjid Jameh (a great mosque) in Shiraz , Masjid Aqa bozorg (mosque) in Kashan , Menar Jonban (Shaking Minaret) in Esfahan , Ancient Hegmataneh Tapeha (hills) in Hamadan , etc .

The most important natural places in Iran :

  • Ghar-e-Ali Sadr in Hamadan (cave)
  • Crown imperial plains (fritillaria imperialis) in Farsan
  • Golestan forest in Bojnurd
  • Kavir-e- Lut (desert) in the centre of Iran
  • Hara forests in the coasts of Oman sea
  • Lake Zarivar in Marivan
  • Lake Ourumiyeh in Azarbayejan
  • Lake Gohar in Lorestan
  • Bagh-e-Kandlus (garden) in Tonokabon
  • Lar Plain in the Mountain Damavand skirts

In addition , foreign and Iranian tourists travel to different places of Iran and buy various goods as their travel souvenirs , and gifts for their relatives , mostly including saffron , caraway , cotton candy , Gaz (candy) , Suhan (candy), varieties of cookies and chocolates , herbs and plants waters , liquorice , pistachio , caviar, date , rose water , carpet , Gilim , Zilu , handicrafts , inlaid articles , mosaic works and miniature paintings , earthenware and glassware , turquoise , pearl , agate , leather commodities , clothes , etc .

There are many museums , exhibiting the world's and Iranian civilization , culture as well as history , the most important of which are as follows :

  • Glassware and earthware museum in Tehran
  • Natural history museum in Tehran
  • Ganj Ali Khan bathroom museum in Kerman
  • Carpet Museum in Tehran
  • Complex of Saadabad museums in Tehran
  • Anthropology museum in Tehran
  • Decorative arts museum in Esfahan
  • Fine arts in Tehran
  • Post museum in Tehran
  • Azadi cultural complex in Tehran

At the beginning of March 1996 , there were 294 operating cinemas , and in the same year 58 films were produced in Iran . At the beginning of March 1997 , there were 77 radio stations , 99 main radio transmitter sets , 1611 television stations and 2302 main television transmitter sets , 87 FM stations and 121 main FM transmitters as well as 2 short wave stations and 12 main short wave radio transmitter sets in operation .

At the beginning of March 1997 , there were 749 publications , 38 of which were daily newspapers . In the same year there were 1047 public libraries with more than 7.8 million volumes of books .

1.7.3 Iranian calendar

Official Iranian calendar is Jalali calendar, which was designed by Omar Khayyam (1048-1122), a famous philisopher, poet and a mathematician. Iranian Calendar has 365 days and 12 months. The Iranian new year begins on March 21 and is dated from the Hejira in 622 A.D. when the prophet Mohammed migrated from Mecca to Medina. In religious matters, the Moslem calendars usually give three systems, Jalali, Islamic and Georgian. The official weekend holiday in Iran is Friday.

The first person who re-organised the calendar successfully was Omar Khayyam, the mathematician and astronomer of 5th century H (11-12th AD). He drew a chart for the year and put the start of the year at the moment of Aries’ entrance to the house of Sun. He made a calendar of 6 months with 31 days, and 6 months with 30 days making a total 365 days, and suggested the addition of 1 day every four years and also addition of a months every 13,000 years. This is the most complete calendar ever made. Khayyam called it "the Jalali Calendar" because of "Jalal" al-Din Malekshah Saljuqi, his patron king. Currently, his calendar is called the "Khorshidi"(Sun based) calendar, as oppose to the Arabic "Ghamari" (moon based) calendar.

1.7.4 Iranian New Year (Norooz)

Norooz, in word, means "new day". It is the new day that starts the year, traditionally the exact astronomical beginning of the Spring. Norooz, or Hormazd in Zoroastrianism, is the first day of the month of Farvardin, first month of the Iranian calendar.(21th of March)

Although Norooz has some outside influences like Qoran and the Arabic prayer during thebeginning of the year, but it still holds the distinctively Iranian values of health, green-ness, life, light, and happiness.

1.8 Socio – Economic Dimension

1.8.1 Population size and distribution

Iran which has an area of 1,648,000 km2, with this population is one of the most strategically located countries in the world.

According to the 1996 Population and Housing Census (the latest census), total population of the country was 60055488 .The population density was 36.7 persons per square kilometer . Of the total population , 61.3 and 38.3 percents lived in urban and rural areas of whom 50.8 and 49.2 percents were males and females respectively . Distribution of age groups :

  • Infants (under one year) : 1.71%
  • Young children (1 - 5 years) : 11.21%
  • School - age children (6 - 10 years) : 14.6%
  • Young adults (11 - 14 years) : 11.99%
  • Adults (15 - 24 years) : 20.54%
  • Middle - aged (25 - 64 years) : 35.58%
  • Aged (65 years and over) : 4.32%

There are 2000000 refugees in Iran. Most of them are from Afghanistan and Iraq.

Table 1. Population and growth rate in Iran from 1976 to 1997
 

YEAR
POPULATION
AVRAGE GROWTH
     
1976-77 Census
33708744
3.9
1986-87
49445010
2.5
1991-92
55837163
1.5
1996-97
60055488
1.5

1.8.2 Life expectancy and fertility rate

Life expectancy in Iran has been started increasing as seen in table 2.

Table 2. Life expectancy from 1995 till 1997 in male and female.


 

Gender Year
 
1995 1997
Male
1995 1997
Female
Life expectancy at birth
67.9 69
69.1 70

 

Total fertality rate births per woman is 2.8(1997). This amount was 6.7 at 1980.

1.8.3 Infant and child mortality rate

Table 3. Infant and under 5 years mortality rate in 1980 compared to 1997.


 

Title 1980 1997
Infant mortality rate 87  32
Under 5 year mortality rate 126 35

1.8.4 Political system

Iranian government system is Islamic republic and its national day is 12th Farvardin ( 1st April ).

1.8.5 Language

There is only one official language, which is Persian or Farsi. In different parts of Iran, different languages are spoken. There are many different dialects of each language. Persian, Turkish, Kurdish, Luri, Gilaki, Arabic, Baloch, are the languages that are used regionally.

1.8.6 Religion

Iran is one of the oldest countries in the world. It’s people were once Zoroastrian, but now about 98.5% of the popilation is is Muslim. According to the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran the rights of Zoroastrians, Christgians and Jewish groups have been formally recognized and their followers may participate equaly in the country’s political economic and social affairs.

1.8.7 Currency

Iran’s currency is Rial. It has a fluctuating exchange rate between 2000-8000 rials to 1 US Dollar.

1.8.8 System of marrige

There are two kind of marrige :

  • Monogomy
  • Polygamy ( It is possible for men to have more than one legal wife) .

1.8.9 Transportation and comunication

At the end of solar year 1375 (March 1996), there were 76187 million kilometres of roads , of which 463 , 22114 and 31386 kms were free , main and asphalted side roads respectively . Length of railways in Iran is 5612 kms . In solar year 1375 , more than 9000000 passengers and 22 million tons of cargoes were transported by the Iranian railways network . In solar year 1375 , more than 8.3 million domestic passengers were transported through airlines . Moreover , more than 1.8 million passengers arrived in or departed from Iran . In addition , fifty airports were operating for transporting passengers in solar year 1375 . At the end of solar year 1375 , about 6.7 million telephone lines were installed . In the same year , 14550 villages were equipped with telephone facilities.

1.8.10 Trade

The major export products such as mineral products , food products , carpet , pistachio , caviar, skin and leather , handicrafts , clothes etc . follow petroleum , gas, oil and petrochemical products exports .

At the end of solar year 1375 (March 1996) , value of non - oil products exports was more than 5434 billion rials . The major import items include primary materials of commodity production , heavy machineries , textile , electric and electronic equipment .

At the end of solar year 1375 (March 1996), value of imports totalled over 23938 billion rials .

1.8.11 Energy

Iran is one of the worlds largest oil rich countries and has the second large gas reserves . At the end of solar year 1375 (March 1996) , the capacity of crude oil production was 1417 million barrels per year .

Moreover , nine refineries are operating in the country . In solar year 1375 (1997) , gas production equaled 234 million cubic meter per day . Until the end of solar year 1375 (March 1998), 292 cities either had been or were being supplied with piped gas . At the end of solar year 1375 (March 1996) , electricity production equaled 90851 thousand MW/h .Furthermore , 35000 villages have been supplied with electricity .

1.8.12 Mining and Manufacturing

The major industries include oil and gas , petrochemical , steel , textile , chemical , food , car

manufacturing , electric and electronic equipment , etc .

The most important household , hand – made and traditional industries contain carpet , Gilim , Jajim and Zilu , inlaid work and pottery . According to the 1996 Population and Housing Census , a population of about 4.5 million were engaged in different industries . At the end of solar year 1375 (March 1998), of 2704 operating mines , 2137 and 567 mines were run by private and public sectors respectively .

The most important mines include coal , metallic minerals , sand and gravel , chemical minerals , salt , etc. Gilan province has the most operating mines .

1.9 Education system

The jonior education is based on three period :

First 5 years for primaryschool.

Second 3 years for secondaryschool.

Third 4 years for highschool.

According to the 1996 Population and Housing Census , of 52294979 population 6 years of age and over , 41582377 persons were literate . Thus , the literacy rate was 79.5 percent . Of the total literate population ,54% and 46% were males and females respectively . In solar year 1375 , over 18.5 million schoolchildren were attending 100139 educational units . In the same year , more than 1.2 million students were attending 266 higher education centres .

1.10 Agriculture and Food Product

Agricural products are one of the most important economic resources of Iran. The Agriculture sector in Iran account for 27% of GDP, 23% of the employment and 35% of the non-oil exports.

On the other hand, one third of Iran’sw economy is related to agriculture. Iran’s government’s policy has been focused on agriculture policy on non- oil production policy since 1979. Becouse of international cobdition aand problemes araising from the revolution inside the country, production and exports has consistantely been state of oscilation during the two decades that followed the revolution. The main agricultural product of Iran are wheat, barley, cotton, rice, beets pistachio, date, varity of fruits, cereals, tubaco, orages family, apple, grape, pomgranate, hazelnut, wild nut, olive, sugar cane, sugar beet, varity of vegetables, tea, fig and other kind of fruits.

Farm animal produiction is the largest subsector with a 57% share in added value agriculture followed by livestock production(41%). Forestry and Fisheries (Kaviar is the most important sea product in Iran) have small contributions of 1.5% and 2% respectively.

On the contrary, Iraninan agriculture has access to abundant land and labor while water remains a major limiting factor.

Food supplies in Iran provide sufficient energy and protein for human needs. Iran is close to self sufficiency in most basic commodities but is still import dependant for wheat, vegatable oil, and sugar. The country self sufficiency ratios for red meat is 88%, milk 90% while white meat, and eggs have reached 100% .

Table 4. Population of domestic livestocks in Iran in 1995*.


 

Animal
Population (Numbers)
Cattle and calf
8785000
Sheep and Lamb
52743000
Goat and Kid
25757000
Buffalo
474000
Cammel
143000
Equines
1537000

 

*Source: Iran Veterinary Organization

Table 5. Number of slaughtered livestocks in Iran in 1995.*


 

Name
Number of sloughtered animal/year
Sheep and Goat
11575989
Cattle, Calf and Buffalo
1328532

 

*Source: Iran Veterinary Organization

Table 6: Area of main agricultural products in Iran in 1996-1997.*


 

Products
Type of agriculture
 
 
Cultivated by dry farming (103h.)
Irrigated farming (103h.)
Wheat
4029.11
2269.88
Barley
872.56
628.93
Rice
0
563.21
Legum
869.87
164.21
Cotton seed
28.05
210.31
Tubacco
605
14.23
Sugar Cane
0.12
24.90
Sugar beet
0
191.24
Vegitables
33.13
381.59

 

*Source: Iran ministry of agriculture

Table 7. Area under cultivatiob and production of principal annual crops during 1993 to 1997.

( 1000 hectares , 1000 tons )
 

Crop
1993-94
Area / production
1994-95
Area / production
1995-96
Area / production
1996-97
Area / production
wheat
6807 / 10732
6782 / 10870
6567 / 11228
6299 / 10045
Barely
1960 / 3058
1757 / 3045
1752 / 2952
1501 / 2499
Rice(paddy)
588 / 2281
563 / 2259
566 / 2301
563 / 2350
PULSES
       
Peas
660 / 296
579 / 299
721 / 355
684 / 267
Beans
113 / 154
80 / 110
85 / 129
105 / 139
lentile
239 / 142
244 / 166
238 / 129
190 / 83
others
36 / 51
43 / 51
66 / 64
55 / 57
TRUCK FARMING
       
Melon
60 / 783
32 / 418
34 / 462
73 / 926
Watermelon
132 / 1739
101 / 1314
109 / 1390
113 / 2174
Cucumber
72 / 1185
69 / 1227
69 / 1292
67 / 1038
Vegetables
       
Potatoes
151 / 3222
150 / 3185
145 / 3074
158 / 3284
Onions
39 / 957
40 / 1112
48 / 1130
46 / 1157
Tomatoes
104 / 2398
92 / 2088
104 / 2408
95 / 2547

 

Table 4:Area (hectar) of some permanent products in 1997.*
 

Product
Area under the cultivation (103h.)
Orange 
208.71
Date 
192.25
Apple
141.05
Pistachio
247.13
Grape
252.20
Nuclei friut
108.8
Pomgranate
51.83
Paer and Quince
23.76
Peanut
76.93
Hazelnut
9.7
Wildnut
41.76
Olive
6.13
Tea
34.65
Fig
37.86
Other fruits
152.62

 

*Source: Iran ministry of agriculture

1.11 Natural resource

Petroleum (Iran is OPEC’s second largest oil producer and accounts for roughly 5% of global oil output. Iran holds 9% of the world’s oil reserves), natural gas (15% of the world’s natural gas reserves), coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur.

At present, the most important industrial units of Iran are the iron-smelting and steel industries, the oil industry (such as petrochemical industry, oil refinary) auto-machinery, clothing, foodstuffs, glass, wood, paper and domestic implements industries.

Parallel to these industries we should also mention the native and handicraft industries of Iran such as carpet-weaving, coarse carpets, pottery and inlay work which possess a value for both tourism and export. Carpet-weaving holds a long historical record. The fine quality, colour and design of Iranian carpet enjoy unoversal fame. Among the best Iranian carpet are those of Kasha, Nayin, Tabriz, Bakhtiari, Isfahan, Turkaman, Bijar and Kerman.

Other examples of genuine Iranian arts which are famous throughout the world are Inlay, Mosaic, Enamel, Glazed tiles, Ceramics and Miniature painting.

The artistic relics which have remained in the fieold of industry present a precious treasure of the national Iranian heritage founded throughout the museums of the world, and still adirn many world art exhibitions. The manifestation of the art of gazed tile work and ceramics can be clearly seen in the religious monuments of Iran today, and this art very tastefully adorns the domes, minarets, halls and closets of many mosques and holly shrines as remakbale examples of the depth and degree of the religious of fervour of Iranian people.

2.PUBLIC HEALTH

In solar year 1375(1996) , there were 685 operating hospitals with 98549 hospital beds . Therefore , there was one hospital bed per 609 persons and one health and medical unit per 10359 persons . There were 3756 and 2041 operating urban and rural health and medical centres respectively in solar year 1375 (1996).

There is , thus , one operating health home per 1360 rural persons . In solar year 1375 , there was one private pharmacy per 100000 persons , one general practitioner per 1183 persons , one dentist per 6371 persons and one pharmacist per 8811 persons . Thus , 50770 general practitioners , 9427 dentists and 6816 pharmacists were engaged in health services .

Acces to health care unit(1999) Rural area : 85%

Urban area : 100%

Maternal mortality rate (1990-1997) 120

Contraceptive prevalence rate any method (1995) 65%

Contraceptive prevelance rate (1990-1998) 73

Aids cases per 100000 people 0.1 Tuberculosis cases per 100000 peopl 29

Pepole without sanitation 19%

Population without health service 12%

Population with safe water(1996) 90%

Human poverty index

  • In 1989 31%
  • In 1995 22%
  • In 1998 18%

2.1 Most important programm

2.1.1 Vaccination

Inaddition of regular vaccination there was a generalised vaccination for children under 5 against polio. It took 5 years, and each year twice. Nowadays there is no case of polio in Iran.

2.1.2 Mother and child care

Every pregnant woman is routinely controlled by a special staff from health care unit. During this time staffs explain ans advise them the the beneficial effect of breast feeding, family planing, antropometry and vaccination. Pregnant women receive the Iron capsul as a supplument from second period of pregnancy until 3 monthes after delivery.

The Iron supplement is routinly given to children via orally consumption of droplet solution. The chindren receive Iron suplement from 6 months until 2 years.

2.1.3 Family planing

in Iran contraseptives are easily available for every woman and they pay nothing for having cotraceptives in deed they are free.Each service provider shows clients the range of contraceptive methods which available at that specific clinic. Providing client with choices and with counseling to help them make decision are cornerstones of good care.The best care helps client achive their own reproductive goals.There are 2 catagories of contraceptives available :

Chemical : Several kind of pills

IUD

Norplant

Injectional method

Physical : Tubectomy

Vasectomy

Tubectomy and vasectomy method are also free in Iran.

2.1.4 Promoting of breast feeding

Training for breast feeding starts during the pregnancy period and it continues in hospital and again in health care unite.

2.2 WHO and Iodine deficiency

The main purposes of WHO collaborating centers in Iran are as follow:

1-To promote research and training activities relevant to priority nutrition probleems, nationally nad regional level.

2-To develop and use training capacity to meet national and regional nutrition trainig needs.

3- To establish institutional linkages with nutrition service departments and other nutrition research/ traing centers within the country and support their work.

4- To participate actively in the regional net working activities and share experience and maintain effective communication with other centers in the regional research network.

5- To act as a regional resource in the area of experties aggreed on with WHO and the network.

6- To conduct research in collaboration with WHO and other relevant UN agancies and participate in relevant multicenter activities initiated in the region.

2.3 WHO and Breast Feeding

The main purposes of WHO collaborating centers in Iran are as follow:

  1. To orgenize training courses for all categories of health workers in breast feeding and infant nutrition, e.g. protection, promotion and support of breast feeding through health services with special refrence to maternal and child health and primary health care, promotion of Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and implementation of the International Code for Marketing of Breast-milk substitutes.
  2. To provide its facilities for developing education materials, both printed and visual, to be used after linguistic adaptation, for wide dissemination in countries.
  3. To develop simple tools for monitoring and evalution of different implementation stages of overall feeding programmes involving the indicators of breast feeding and complementary feeding practices developed byWHO/UNICEF and to review experiences in the countries of EMR, identify gaps and areas of weakness and suggest strengthened strategies.

3. FOOD SITUATION AND NUTRITION

3.2 Food consumtion

Daily Calorie per capita in Iran is as same as developed country, while the food consumtion is the same as developing country.

•Daily per capita suply of fat 64g

•Daily per capita suply of protein 77g

•Daily per capita suply of calorie 3000 kcal 1995

•Daily per capita suply of calorie 4100 kcal 199 

3.3 Food security

Daily per capita suply of Calorie in 1970 was 1994 kcal.

Daily per capita suply of Calorie in 1995 was 2945 kcal.

Daily per capita suply of Calorie in 1998 was 2800 kcal.

Iran also imports red meats, sugar, vegetable oil. With calculating this amount daily pre capita Calorie rises as following figure.

3.1 Food suply

Food supplies in Iran provide sufficient energy and protein for human needs. Iran is close to self sufficiency in most basic commodities but is still import dependant for wheat, vegatable oil, and sugar. The country self sufficiency ratios for red meat is 88%, milk 90% while white meat, and eggs have reached 100% .

List of refrences

Minstery of Agriculture

Iran vetrinary organisatian

Food and Agriculture Organisation(FAO)

World Health Organisation(WHO)

Iran statistics department

World bank

 
Table of contents

1. GENERAL INFORMATION *

 

1.1 Geography *

1.1.1 Area *

1.1.2 Geographic coordinate *

1.1.3 Situation *

1.1.4 Border countries *

1.1.5 Adminsitrative division *

1.1.6 Elevation extremes *

1.2 Time *

1.3 Flag *

1.4 Capital *

1.5 Climate and weather *

1.6 Water source *

1.6.1 Institutional environment *

1.6.2 Trends in water resources management *

1.6.3 Government policy *

1.7 History *

1.7.1 The name of Iran *

1.7.2 Iran as a country for tourism *

1.7.3 Iranian calendar *

1.7.4 Iranian New Year (Norooz) *

1.8 Socio – Economic Dimension *

1.8.1 Population size and distribution *

1.8.2 Life expectancy and fertility rate *

1.8.3 Infant and child mortality rate *

1.8.4 Political system *

1.8.5 Language *

1.8.6 Religion *

1.8.7 Currency *

1.8.8 System of marrige *

1.8.9 Transportation and comunication *

1.8.10 Trade *

1.8.11 Energy *

1.8.12 Mining and Manufacturing *

1.9 Education system *

1.10 Agriculture and Food Product *

1.11 Natural resource *

2.PUBLIC HEALTH *

2.1 Most important programm *

2.1.1 Vaccination *

2.1.2 Mother and child care *

2.1.3 Family planing *

2.1.4 Promoting of breast feeding *

2.2 WHO and Iodine deficiency *

2.3 WHO and Breast Feeding *

3. FOOD SITUATION AND NUTRITION *

3.2 Food consumtion *

3.3 Food security *

3.1 Food suply *

List of refrences *

Table of contents *

  
; ساعت ۱٢:۳٩ ‎ب.ظ روز پنجشنبه ٦ فروردین ۱۳۸۳